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Tradition / Reception / Reception of Chopin / In sculpture



Chopin in the works of Polish sculptors



Morning is due to all
To some - the Night -
To an imperial few -
The Auroral light.                  

          Emily Dickinson


Chopin's unique personality, his genuine, unfeigned  greatness, surpassing all others and not sought after or planned by him, as well as the authenticity and unparalleled character of his art were already clearly visible in his lifetime. Like other musicians he gave concerts, taught music, had a busy social life and travelled widely, but the mundane character of all those tasks did not deprive him of his uniqueness.

His popularity as an artist was the reason why painters often asked him to sit for them and he willingly gave them his time. The technical requirements of a sculpted work of art meant that there have been fewer sculpted portraits created than paintings, and this was especially true of Chopin's depictions by Polish artists.

In none of the fields or disciplines of the Arts can one  count on a general public interest. That fine stratum of  select people who appreciate serious music has always been very thin and it continues to be a very small percentage of society. The creation of sculpted or painted portraits of an artist - even someone as  magnificent as Chopin - concerned only very few of both artists and his admirers.

It is a truism, but we constantly impose the ideas of today on to the past although we know how quickly that reality can change within just one lifetime. Today, it is almost impossible to imagine a 19th century situation when in order to listen to music one had to learn music at home and practise it, attend costly public concerts or organise such concerts oneself. Ladies playing the piano (most often an upright piano) belonged to the cultural panorama of society and it was they, and the people in their immediate circle, who learnt and listened to music. They opened up a heartfelt need for music and created musical life itself. They cared about music and often cared about bringing the composer closer to the audience.

Chopin was a phenomenon of unusual musical and patriotic intensity and as such he soon became an icon to those who craved his music. When he was no longer present in person, there seemed to be an imperative to complement his ephemeral music with some substantial traces or evidence of his existence which would also be a token of remembrance.

A sculpture, because of its physical permanence and its three-dimensional self evident nature, fulfilled different expectations than a painting would.  A sculpture presented those expectations with different values and, due to its monumentality, guaranteed a wider social resonance.  Artists created such sculpted portraits, people came to see them, and they occupied a definite position in the social space. Apparently, such colourless shadows of his person were necessary. And so, love for ephemeral music produced three-dimensional permanent reminders of the person who created that music.  Despite the fact that his music is the greatest monument to him, there were always people who also wanted to look at him and enjoy his presence. The creation of his effigies gave artists in other fields of art a chance to try to reach the very essence of his personality through recreating his features or his silhouette.

The division of Chopin's likenesses into those created during his lifetime and those afterwards, which is so important in painting, does not exist in sculpture, at least not in Polish sculpture.1.    The very great differences between portraits by Ambroży Mieroszewski, Teofil Kwiatkowski or Antoni  Kolberg stem, even within the same era, not only from the range of their talents and from the great variety of their styles, but also most of all, from the illusory character of painting itself and its scope, which discloses "a wealth of motives, meaning, content, formal solutions"  as pointed out by Aleksandra Melbechowska in her work  Chopin in Polish Painting...2.  None of the Polish sculptors would undertake to create a composition such as Teofil Kwiatkowski's painting A Ball at the Hotel Lambert, although some designs of monuments sometimes featured scenes or groups of characters.

Also important is the difference in the number of portrayals: there were only very few sculptures and the earliest ones were imitations or versions of works already created by  French artists, and they were all sculpted only after Chopin's death. These French sculptures included a bust carved by August-Jean-Baptiste Clesinger in 1849 3.,  the portrait medallions by Jean-François-Antoine Bovy of 1837 and 1847, as well as a small bust of Chopin by Jean-Pierre Dantan (the younger) of 1841. All these works of art in miniature form (prepared by J. Tatarkiewicz) were produced by Minter's casting shop in Warsaw in 1848 - 1854.

Against all expectations, the creators of the early Polish sculptures did not show any interest in Chopin's death mask, taken by Clesinger, which constituted the most objective source of knowledge about Chopin's features. The complicated history of both casts, made immediately after the composer's death, does not provide information as to when the casts reached Poland. We know that one of the masks belonged to Chopin's family and another one was part of the collection of Marcelina Czartoryska.  Another was the property of Władysław Mickiewicz in Paris, and in all probability Cyprian Godebski was also in possession of yet another death mask. However, we do not know the origin of the mask which was, for example in the Paris studio of Wacław Szymanowski. Also sculptors rarely referred to painted portraits known from reproductions and photographs, although traces of them can be found in their works. Most often, these were compilations from memory of prints and press reproductions of popular painted portraits, both French and Polish, by Ary Scheffer, Eugène Delacroix, Pierre-Roche Vigneron, Kwiatkowski, and Mieroszewski.

It seems, however, that following the general changes taking place in art, the sources of inspiration for Chopin's portrayals also changed fundamentally. All throughout the 19th century, the highest criterion in a sculpted portrait was the rendering of a good likeness of the model, based on a reproduction of  already existing portrayals, and a re-creation of features in an ideal and static form. The first sculpted portraits created in the second half of the 19th century, are Classical and Eclectic in style according to the spirit of the times, but today they seem to bear little resemblance to him, as if the face of Chopin, who was the greatest musician of the Romantic era,  did not lend itself to such portrayals and would not comply with the principles governing the art of portraiture which demanded that such a representation should be a perfectly timeless and ageless creation.

The first of such portraits was executed by Jakub Tatarkiewicz in 1851. Apart from a fine marble version, which is now the property of the National Museum in Warsaw, it also existed in the form of a miniature bust cast in Minter's foundry around 1852. This portrait was based on the likeness from a Bovy medallion and that was why Chopin's profile was very similar to the original (especially as regards the hair), while the face, seen from the front, was of a very full oval and with ideally smoothed out features which shows the artist being faithful to and restricting himself to the design of the  medallion.

The next of Chopin's likenesses was created about twenty or so years later, in 1872.  As a commission from the Warsaw Musical Society, Bolesław Syrewicz sculpted a bust of Carrara marble, mounted on a marble base, which was exhibited at the Zachęta Gallery in Warsaw for a while but was later moved, in 1877, to the home of the Musical Society.  The author claimed to have made use of the death mask taken by Clesinger and of some photographs of a portrait by Ary Scheffer but the Classical stylistics of that period left their strongest mark on the portrait. It can be seen not only in the face which is much too full, and devoid of expression, but also in  the bust itself, for the customary attire, the scarf around the neck and wide lapels, are covered with drapery as if the sculptor intended to portray a Roman senator. Musical elements on the base of the sculpture are designed to disclose the rather imprecise identity of the person portrayed. The creation of this sculpted portrait, or more precisely, a small monument, which is about 2.5 metres high (8 feet together with the base) with a portrait larger than nature was, in a sense, a result of a misunderstanding.

Apparently, the efforts of Cyprian Godebski, around 1876, to obtain approval from the tsarist Russian authorities for his design of a monument to Chopin were ineffective and unsuccessful because his correspondence was sent to the wrong institution, which Godebski was unaware of, as he lived in Paris. However, following the  approval of the tsarist Russian authorities to erect a monument, a collection of public donations was started for a monument whose design was commissioned from Bolesław Syrewicz, for nobody knew about Godebski's plans. A discrepancy in the dates of both designs suggests that this story, related as late as 1922, was not necessarily true. What is definitely  known, is that Syrewicz created a sculpture and Godebski made a design. The design was later lost, but judging from a small reproduction of 1903, it was not a  substantial loss to Polish art.4.

This event shows, however, that apart from numerous bas-relief medallions or portrait plaques some ideas for large monuments appeared at that time. Godebski's design consisted of a large architectural plinth or pedestal with a bench for the public. In the centre there was a seated figure of Chopin accompanied by a muse, or personification of music, that held up a lyre. At both ends of the sculpture there were cupids playing instruments. The size of the reproduction does not allow for any view on the portrayal of Chopin but general knowledge of Godebski's work and style makes one suppose that it might be close in character to the monument that Mickiewicz designed and erected later.5.

A monument that was actually made and placed in  a public space was  the tablet in the Holy Cross Church in Warsaw. Chopin's portrait is its dominant element, but unfortunately it is not easily visible because of the height at which it is mounted. The tablet is the work of Leonard Marconi, created and unveiled during a celebration in 1880. Its most valuable part is a youthful portrait, remarkable for its delicate features in a slim face, showing similarity to the portraits by Mieroszewski and Kolberg. This exceptional monument, because of its location in a church and the special reason for it, namely that Chopin's heart was encased in a pillar there, despite being in a very grand place, did not allow easy general access and, what is more, was only a very modest acknowledgement of Chopin's greatness. Therefore, its existence was not really taken into consideration when new initiatives came from the public to erect a more appropriate monument.

There was a similar situation with the small and unassuming monument in Żelazowa Wola.  A committee, established by the Warsaw Musical Society, was unable to purchase from the owner the outbuildings of the manor house where Chopin had been born but it was very successful in its collection of funds and in obtaining permission from the tsar to erect a monument - a metal obelisk with a portrait of Chopin by Jan Woydyga.6. The portrait was based on a medallion by Bovy and offered as a gift. It was erected in 1894 and, with the permission of the owner, was placed on private ground between the manor house and the outbuildings.

In 1896, on the anniversary of Chopin's stay in Duszniki (called Bad Reinerz at that time) an unusual monument was unveiled: on a 2,5 metres high diorite  boulder.  A bronze medallion with Chopin's portrait by Stanisław Roman Lewandowski was placed there together with an inscription in Latin, which had been written by the benefactor, Wiktor Magnus, who was a forester and an amateur musician.  It read: This monument was erected in lasting memory of Fryderyk Chopin commemorating his  time in Duszniki, in 1826, where, through his real art and high culture he conveyed the noble character of his soul in his early youth; with the permission of the town authorities, by a Pole to a Pole.  The creator of the medallion returned to the theme of Chopin several times in his long creative life and his portrayals, from different stages of his life, represent different stylistic features.

The theme of Chopin in Polish sculpture began to appear more frequently towards the end of the 19th century in connection with the approaching anniversary of his death. For example, in Lvov a competition for a monument to Chopin was announced in 1892 but nothing is known of its results.

Very few of the Polish sculptors living in the second half of that century did not include the subject of Chopin, but it would be worthwhile here to remember the question of cost which in this particular sphere of the Arts played a considerable role. Each of the works of art is executed in clay, and in order not to disintegrate, it should be reproduced at least in gypsum but this gives the sculptures  a rather imperfect, brittle and delicate existence. Especially in a country like ours where even marbles and bronzes could not always defy the ravages of events, works of this nature often only survived to the present day as reproductions in newspaper photographs or in exhibition catalogues.

The epitaph in the Holy Spirit Church in Warsaw gave rise to a long list of monuments, as if the interest in Chopin portraits included, alongside small exhibitions, a need for his presence in  a larger social space. In the 19th century these two trends, private and social, differed little from each other. Sometimes sculptures made for exhibitions turned into monuments or tried to pose as such. A striking bust could become a monument but sometimes just medallions and plaques served this purpose. The bust of Chopin sculpted by Alfred Daun, presented at the Society of the Friends of Fine Arts in Cracow7. in 1881 found its way to the Jordan Park. A Cracow sculptress, Tola Certowicz, with the idea of a monument in mind, created a portrait of Chopin, deep in thought, with his face emerging from the stone, resting on one hand and holding a folded musical notation in the other. Similarly, Józef Gabowicz, in 1902, completed a portrait of the composer with a twig of laurel. Medallions or plaques were also devoted to the composer by Marcinkowski (1890), Woydyga (1894), Lewandowski (1898), Ostrowski (1899), Wincenty Trojanowski (1896), Maria Gerson (1899) and others.

The beginning of the 20th century brought more monuments, some of them quite outstanding, such as Bolesław Biegas (1902), and Hipolit Marczewski (1902) with a portrait of an almost painter's delicacy, probably based on a painting by Kolberg. Stanisław Kazimierz Ostrowski's unusual, expressive portrait dated to around 1907-08 was purchased for a state French collection in 19308., and there are several  medallions and medals among which the plaque by Jan  Nalborczyk distinguishes itself through its original design, for it depicts Chopin's profile, his head lowered over the keyboard and his hair in disarray (1912). The sculptor was obviously drawing on Romantic presentations by Kwiatkowski. This plaque demonstrates a feature that became more and more evident in the 20th century, for artists stop worrying about the similarity of their works to the once dominant but now unimportant French style and Chopin became a subject for creativity rather than imitation.

This feature appeared early in the work of Biegas who, in his bas-relief The Funeral March (1909), presented Chopin improvising on a keyboard of human fingers. The space in front of him and around him is filled by human phantoms, shouting and emerging from a misty element which seems to be water at the bottom and rises upwards in flames.  It is  the first such distinct attempt to present a specific piece of Chopin's music in sculpture. The likeness to Chopin is of no importance in this symbolic composition.  The theme is both the artist himself and his music which conveys the expression of the inner picture, not to be articulated even in the most accurate reproduction of the features of the face. Subsequent sculptures by Biegas depicting Chopin were also an attempt to find an artistic equivalent to his music and to present an image of the creator of the music.  A more traditional form of such a developed picture was adopted in a small plaque devoted to Chopin by Jan Wysocki in 1912 who depicted the composer among the dancing muses.

The turning point in Chopin's iconography probably began in the year 1909.  Admittedly, the Warsaw competition for a monument to Chopin was announced a year earlier, and also that earlier year marked the appearance of a design by Wacław Szymanowski - the subsequent winner in the competition, as well as a design prepared in 1906, and cast in bronze by Józef Chmieliński, an actor and sculptor.  However, it was the competition that stimulated interest in the subject which was so dear to many artists that they all took part in it.  It was also important to Polish society. After the competition, a number of artists would not admit to having participated, which was possibly because the post-competition exhibition did not have any catalogue nor was there any information about the contestants' works. However, the sheer number of entries (66 or 67) shows that almost all Polish sculptors, active at the time, took part, and not only from all three areas of partitioned Poland but also from Vienna (Lewandowski). Rome (Glicenstein) and Paris (Gardecki, and Biegas).

Unfortunately, we know very few of those designs. We know Szymanowski's work which was developed into several portrait heads.  Several models of his monument were on a scale of 1:5, and one in timber was on a scale of 1:2. The Parisian cast of the Szymanowski monument was unveiled in the Warsaw Łazienki Park in 1926 but was destroyed by the Germans during the Nazi occupation in 1940.  Also the timber version in the Poznań Museum was chopped up by the same "Kulturtraegers", carriers of culture but it was recreated  and replaced by a reconstruction in 1958. Other sculptures, even the prize winners, have not survived and apart from very few photographs, and rather imprecise descriptions, little is known of them.9.

We can only regret that nobody preserved Xavery Dunikowski's design which was only mentioned in reviews, and that even the reconstructed list of the names of the participants in the competition is restricted to just ten sculptors out of sixty.  What is known is that several artists entered more than one design, for example, Z. Otto, B. Biegas and probably J. Gardecki. We can only guess that portraits of Chopin dated close to the  competition  deadline were connected with the year of 1909, although the sculptors did  not admit that they had taken part in the competition so as not to advertise their lack of success. The results of the Chopin competitions in 1949 disappeared in a similar way in Warsaw and in Cracow.10.

The year 1909 marked another turning point. Wacław Szymanowski's design, the prize winner selected by foreign jurors (Albert Barholome, Antoine Bourdelle and Hector Ferrari), not only did not comply with the conditions of the rules of the competition precisely formulated  by Polish artists and the representatives of the committee for the construction of the monument, but also provided evidence of a new, original approach to the subject of music and its creator.

In 1906 a design for a monument to Chopin was created by Józef Chmieliński, an actor and a sculptor. Cast in bronze, it would have met the requirements of the Warsaw competition in 1909 because its vertical composition would fit the narrow Warecki Square - which was one of the competition's requirements. Above the seated figure of Chopin, there are two symbolic female  silhouettes. The one higher up, as a personification of music, is a  youthful genius with outspread wings and an inspired expression on the raised head, playing a harp.  Its companion silhouette is full of movement and asymmetry, thus adding some lightness to the composition which otherwise might seem to weigh down on Chopin. The theatrical character of the design of the  sculpture - not in the round but attached to a wall - is a result of the two professions the author practised but due to the asymmetry of the figures rendered in freely flowing Art Nouveau lines, it breaks free from the convention of eclectic monuments, full of pathos, such as for instance, the monuments to Mickiewicz in Cracow and in Warsaw.

The design by Szymanowski was also born from a heartfelt creative need in Paris in 1904, where the artist lived, as a reaction to the news that the tsarist authorities had issued permission to erect a monument  to Chopin  in Warsaw. The sculptor's home was pervaded by the cult of Chopin's music. His wife, Gabriela Turner,  studied piano music with Izabela Działyńska, herself a pupil of Chopin, and music with markings in his own hand was cherished there and treasured like a relic.

Szymanowski's imagination devised a vision which, in a most unusual way, surpassed everything that the other sculptors prepared for the competition. The jury awarded their prize to the creative idea stemming from the Art Nouveau asymmetric concept yet free of decorative nature which made way for the expression emanating from the deeply concentrating Chopin seated under a homely willow tree, which  transformed the author's artistic and patriotic feelings and convictions into a symbol of musical inspiration. Szymanowski rejected all obligatory conventions - obelisks, columns, multilevel architectural bases as well as props and symbolic figures providing a commentary on the way of life or profession of the portrayed person. The international jury appreciated  this vision.

Numerous repeated designs by sculptors to portray Chopin seem to point to a sense of a lack of satisfaction and imperfection in what they strove to achieve in their first attempt to portray the composer and his work. Apart from Szymanowski, several other Polish sculptors also returned to the theme of Chopin. For Bolesław Biegas it was mainly a search for  an equivalent to music, especially to Chopin's Romantic music, in the limited forms of sculpture. Two designs prepared by Biegas for the competition in 1909 were described in an article devoted exclusively to them, in language so full of  rapture that it is impossible to say what they  really looked like.11. The first sculpture was defined as A Design  for a Monument to Chopin, now in the collection of the National Museum in Cracow,12 and A Harp of Inspiration  is shaped in a very similar style, of symbolic chaos, out of which bodies, whispers, bodies, and raptures appear alternately, and the matter joining them seems to be like rushing masses of air.13.

A Design for a Monument to Chopin is actually a double faced bas relief. The joint edges of the composition are made up of a naked feminine figure in an ecstatic movement on one side, and on the other a naked masculine figure whose arms are stretched backwards and suggest the upper curving line of a harp. Both sides of the composition feature Chopin improvising at the keyboard in  dynamic poses. One of the presentations of the musician is a version of an earlier composition   entitled The Funeral March and both sides of the composition are filled with symbolic characters and faces emerging from the solid matter of the sculpted form.

The second design entitled A Harp of Rapture  contains a number of solutions that  can be seen in Biegas' earlier  attempts to express music in a sculptured composition that drew on the figures of  the composer such as Beethoven, Berlioz, and Wagner. But in comparison with those other sculptures, this is an unusually complicated  form containing  a portrait of an inspired Chopin below which there is a multitude of figures and forms employed  to express his music by embodying the sound element  in a vague, dynamic substance.

In Dunikowski's work the theme of Chopin appeared at least four times: the earliest is a portrait that stylistically complied with the  date of the competition, although it was dated 1900 in the catalogue.  It was exhibited in Lvov in 1910 which may mean that it might have been connected with the competition in 1909.14. We  will never know now whether there was any  monument context,  and what it might have been, as regards this youthful, expressive head. The competition reviewer remarked only: both Dunikowski and Biegas entered purely sculpture and museum pieces, certainly not monuments.15.

A different Chopin by Dunikowski was created in about 1922. It is a bust in the nude with a youthful head on a long neck, amazingly different from the two versions of Chopin - in wood and bronze - made  a little later in the cycle of the Wawel heads.  Dunikowski's Chopin seems to age with the artist. The last work of the sculptor is a mask based on the well-known daguerreotype by Louis Bisson made around 1846, picturing a sad face, changed by illness. Dunikowski's  mask with rough hewn and simplified features pictures an ominous but also a sad expression and its strikingly monumental character reflects the greatness of both artists. It constitutes the basic part of the monument to Chopin in Sao Paulo, erected in 1954.

An impressive catalogue of Chopin's sculpted portraits, published by Magdalena Wilczkowska16., is arranged according to the alphabetical order of  Chopin's iconography but it is quite easy to find evidence in it of the beginning of the portrait theme in monumental sculpture. The catalogue has for a long time now needed a second enlarged edition because the 20th century, together with a general evolution in the Arts, has also brought a  pronounced flourishing of material inherent in the theme, which seemed limited, but in sculpture, found its chance to disclose its range and new opportunities. The predominant nature of sculpture, its durability and its influence on and interaction with space around it has been coming into prominence slowly but incessantly.

Chopin's portraits also appeared in the art of the medallion but were often dominated by monuments, often created  by Polish artists living outside Poland. August Zamoyski spent the years of the Second World War in Brazil and on the beach in Rio de Janeiro he left a statue of a youthful Chopin, about which the writer Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz said,  ... the figure of Chopin listening, as if to a seashell, to what sounds in his cupped hand, makes a very great impression, it becomes integral with the landscape and the sea...17.

In Poland new monuments were also created. Contemporary sculptures mark all the places that Chopin visited.  In 1969 a new monument was unveiled in Żelazowa Wola: of a musician deep in thought, in a concentrated but leisurely pose which was the work of  Józef Gosłowski; in 1985 a beautiful statue of a walking Chopin was sculpted by Ludwika Nitschowa and placed in front of the Pruszak family palace in Sanniki near Gąbin. The city of  Cracow built a monument in 2006 to an avant garde design by Maria Jarema that was awarded a prize in the 1949 competition. There is no figure of Chopin in it, just his music trapped in the movement of the piano keys and strings of flowing water.  Bronisław Chromy erected his own private monument to Chopin in the  Decjusz Park of the Wola Justowska part of Cracow.  His Chopin, submerged in a musical wave, shows just his head and hands, a synthesis of sounds hidden in the level lines of a sculpted form.

And finally, there is a monument that met with criticism in the press stemming from a lack of knowledge of modern trends. The Chopin created by Jan Kucz in Wrocław, in 2004, is a slim and elegant man resting in an armchair with a very real and beautiful face, showing inner depth. The sculptor restored Chopin to his era and he would not have been able to create his monument in a time other than ours which would be devoid of our present eclectic Post Modernism. Kucz's decision called for courage in the treatment of the theme using the aesthetics of the composer's times when the majority of present day active artists try to outdo each other in their attempts to attract attention in an  anti-aesthetic way, mainly relating to themselves. This monument makes us remember that Chopin's music and the composer himself come from a world of beauty of thought and emotion which still exists today although it is rarely noticed.

The 21st century keeps enlarging the catalogue of Chopin's monuments and probably this trend will not change. The "imperial few" still need Chopin, and that group has also multiplied since his time, together with the huge growth of the human population.


Hanna Kotkowska-Bareja                                       
English translation: Magda Mierowska

1     H. Wróblewska, A. Lewkowicz, Portrait of Fryderyk Chopin (exhibition catalogue), Warsaw 1975

2     A. Melbechowska-Luty, Chopin in Polish Painting from the Romantic Era till Modernism, in: "Chopin in polish culture" ed. Maciej Gołąb, Wrocław 2009 p.233-264

3     This bust must have been in Poland because  E. Swiejkowski's TPSP Diary of the Society of Friends of Fine Arts in Cracow 1854 -1904, publ. Cracow 1905 -  mentions a Carrara marble bust, a portrait of Chopin with an incorrectly  identified name "Lesinger", and  a date 1873. A sculptor of such a  name did not exist

4     Dr. K. Konarski, Two stillborn monuments, Ziemia (The Earth) 1922 No 21, pp 355-356

5     Chopin monument design by Godebski, Praca (Work) 1903 No 22 p.639 illustr.

6     Aleksander Poliński, For Chopin, Tyg. Ill. (The Illustrated Weekly) 1894 No 227 pp.283-4. The fund consisted of 3000 roubles, income from Władysław Żeleński's concert, and 221,21 roubles from a concert in Radom. Moreover, Marek Drozdowski's biography of Paderewski carries information about Paderewski's contribution of 2000 roubles to the cause.

7     E. Swiejkowski, TPSP Diary of the Society of Friends of Fine Arts in Cracow 1854 - 1904, Cracow 1905

8     A bronze cast of this portrait is in the National Museum in Cracow, in the TiFC Fryderyk Chopin Society, and also the National Museum in Warsaw owns the original gypsum version with a part of the cast form remaining on the left side, as if Chopin's face was emerging from concealment.

9     The known designs include the prize works by Władysław Marcinkowski, Zygmunt Otto, Stanisław Jagmin, and Edward Wittig. The press also gave the names of  Xawery Dunikowski, Bolesław Biegas, Józef Kruczkiewicz, A. Korpal, and Ignacy Wiśniewski.

10   Of the competition in Cracow only four designs have survived which are now in the collection of the National Museum  in Cracow; also preserved is a drawing of the design by Z. Pronaszko, and Maria Jarema's design was carried out in 2006.

11   Mieczysław Sterling, Biegas' Monuments, Survey of art. And literary Criticism 1909 No 9 pp.8-9: Michał Domański, Bolesław Biegas as a sculptor of Chopin, Pięć Rzek (Five Rivers),1966 No 4 pp 11-12.

12    Bolesław Biegas, 1877 - 1954, sculpture, painting, Płock 1997 (exhibition catalogue) p. 134

13    M. Sterling, see 8.

14    Xawery Dunikowski, sculptures, paintings, drawings (catalogue), ed. Aleksandra Kodurowa, Warsaw 1975, No 9, 10 p. 59

15    Wacław Moszkowski, As regards the Chopin Monument Competition, Przegląd Techniczny (Technological Survey), 1909 No.24 p. 296

16    M.Wilczkowska, F. Chopin in Polish Art at the turn of the 19th century (Catalogue), Rocznik Chopinowski XIII (Chopin Yearbook XIII), 1981

17    J. Iwaszkiewicz, August Zamoyski, Literatura (Literature) 1976, 12 August, p.3




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