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Tradition / Reception / The Impact of Chopin's Music



The Impact of Chopin's Music on the Work of 19th and 20th Century Composers


Due to the popularity of interdisciplinary studies, "reception" has in the last few decades become a new subject of research, describing not only continuing relationships in the history of music, or of art in general, but also inspiring discussions of a theoretical and aesthetic nature.

The term reception refers to the lifespan of a work in history, the "reflection" that it throws on music and on other arts, and the social impact it has on the musical awareness of later generations.[1]

Hans-Heinrich Eggebrecht's studies of the reception[2] of Beethoven's music marked the beginning of aesthetic and theoretical deliberations in the field of musicology.  In Poland, Zofia Lissa[3] took up the question of the aesthetic reception of music. Currently the issue of Chopin reception is  investigated, among others, by Jim Samson[4], Irena Poniatowska and Mieczysław Tomaszewski.

Mieczysław Tomaszewski applies the term "resonance"[5] to the situation where the contemporary and following generations of musicians adopt a composer's methods and creative features.  The proof of a work's impact is in its faithful transcriptions or free arrangements for other media, including the various use of fragments, citations and certain elements of style, also those in the form of collage, variations, and different kinds of reminiscences, etc. Finally there are the homage types of works written in memory of the composer.

Reception, understood as the relationship linking a composer's single work or entire output to the music of his/her contemporaries and successors, depends on the historical distance existing between the original work and its musical influence.  It also depends on the kind of emotional attitude towards the music of the original, for instance towards Chopin's music.

Chopin's contemporary musicians sought inspiration in his music, but it had a particularly strong impact on the next generations of composers.  They imitated the musical shape of Chopin's compositions, his harmonic methods, melodies and kinds of expression that were typical of the Polish genius. They referred to the genres Chopin used and adopted his aesthetic-poetic attitudes, such as the perception of music as "a sound language", treating elements of folk music and poetry as composing material, while keeping the right balance between form and expression[6].

The exceptional quality of Chopin's music and the composer's genius were noticed fairly quickly.  At this point, it is worth mentioning Maurycy Mochnacki's words, quoted in "Kurier Polski", "He who at a young age starts out so successfully will make his name known far and wide!"[7]  

Many of Chopin's younger and older friends (Ignacy Feliks Dobrzyński, Julian Fontana, Oskar Kolberg, Karol Kurpiński, and Wojciech Sowiński) accepted his talent without reservations, but none succeeded in following the path set by their great compatriot.  The reception of Chopin's music in his homeland was rather superficial because of an insufficient knowledge of his entire output.  Also, composers preferred to stay with classical and early romantic models, and so they failed to take up Chopin's innovatory ideas.  There were, however,  many musicians who simply churned out copies of the Maestro's compositions, imitating in a rather primitive manner such features of his creative work as dreaminess, tenderness, sweetness and sentimentality.  This simplified reception of Chopin's music was condemned by Józef Sikorski, Poland's leading music critic of the day.   In "Ruch Muzyczny" he lashed out at the growing nocturne and mazurka mania.  He was supported by other 19th century Polish music critics, Antoni Woykowski, Jan Kleczyński, and Marceli Antoni Szulc, who urged a sense of proportion in presenting Chopin's music.

In the 19th century the reception of works written by the composer famous for his mazurkas and preludes was reflected by a range of transcriptions.  Arranging compositions for other media became common practice, especially in the latter half of the 19th century.  The aim was to popularise Chopin's compositions among musicians playing different instruments, as well as among music lovers, and consequently, extending their repertoires,.  The formal musical education system in Poland virtually ceased to exist after the 1830 November Uprising until as late as 1861 when Apolinary Kątski formed the Warsaw Music Institute.   In that period music was taught in private homes.  Music lessons were compulsory for young ladies from well-to-do bourgeois families, leading to the rapidly growing demand for a repertoire that would be both attractive and easier to play.  Consequently, Chopin's immensely popular compositions were simplified in terms of technique and transcriptions were also made for personal reasons, such as being a friend of the composer and also for commercial considerations.    The first transcriptions of Chopin's works appeared as early as the 1830s, shortly after the publication of the originals.  The practice of transcribing reached its peak in the late Positivism period. In all, 201 of Chopin's original compositions were transcribed.[8] And the exploitation of Chopin's music was a large-scale phenomenon. Antoni Orłowski's transcription called Mazur z motywów Koncertu [f-moll op.21, III cz.], Fantazji i Ronda krakowskiego (1830) is considered the earliest and it was the first published composition which drew on Chopin's music.

Some 1500 musicians transcribed Chopin's compositions, including top-class professionals (both composers and performers) such as August Franchômme, Franz Liszt, Friedrich Kalkbrenner, Karl Czerny, Rafael Joseffy, Pablo Sarasate, Karol Mikuli, Józef Nowakowski, Mili Balakirev, Alexander Glazunov, Nicolai Rimski-Korsakov and Max Reger.  There were some great favourites among Chopin's original compositions, which were transcribed hundreds of times for all possible instruments and sets of instruments.

After Poland lost its independence any manifestation of national identity became extremely important for boosting the nation's morale.  The ideas of the romantic artists, drawing on folklore and on the national art concept, were exceptionally popular with the Poles.  Music, too, was expected to convey national and folk themes.  Compositions on Polish airs, appropriately titled, appeared and their melodic content was based on the rhythmical and metrical patterns typical of Polish dances. The young Chopin grew up in an atmosphere of respect for national values and   from an early age he was exposed to that specific quality of Polish music, which would be responsible for the unique originality of his works.  Marceli Antoni Szulc wrote: "Chopin tried to explore and to capture the spirit permeating folk poetry and music."[9]  However, the folk element in Chopin's music became a national identity concept.  Consequently, it became the most important feature and value obvious to all Poles, who went into raptures over Chopin's works and were proud of his international reputation, but who, according to Jan Kleczyński, loved him particularly for his mazurkas and polonaises.[10]  They adored Chopin for celebrating the Polish spirit, the essence of themselves, which he brought to the whole world through his exquisite compositions.  Indeed, Chopin came to personify Polishness.  

Small wonder then that it was the mazurkas, the musical compositions echoing Polish songs and dances and perfectly conveying the spirit and traditions of the nation, that featured prominently in the early reception of Chopin's work. Mazurkas had been composed before Chopin by, among others, Maria Szymanowska, Karol Lipiński, Józef Elsner, Karol Kurpiński, Józef Krogulski, and Józef Damse.  After Poland had ceased to exist as a state their nationalistic dimension became a fundamental value.  Originally a dance, the mazurka became a miniature composition for an audience.  Mazurkas were mass-produced and they were stylised to varying degrees, reflecting different standards of artistic transcription.  Wojciech Tomaszewski's Bibliografia warszawskich druków muzycznych itemises 1270 mazurs and 168 mazurkas[11] written by both professional and amateur composers and published in the first half of the 19th century[12].  However, it was Chopin who made the mazurka, a popular dance form, into remarkable musical poems, admired in  drawing rooms across Europe, where his mazurkas were commonly believed to convey the feeling of homesickness.

According to Tomaszewski[13], the immense popularity of Chopin's mazurkas "encouraged Polish composers to emulate them, and frequently making a poor job of it."  One example is Henryk Szopowicz's A whole collection of mazurs à la Chopin from the 1840s.  Although the composer failed to equal Chopin in terms of "poetic images"[14], some of his mazurs were considered to be of a fairly good standard.  Mazurkas in the style of Chopin were written by the generation of his friends, later of his pupils, and finally by those who had never met the composer but who found it an appropriate way to express their admiration.  Among these were Ignacy Feliks Dobrzyński, Józef Nowakowski, Edward Wolff, Józef Brzowski, Antoni Kątski, Ignacy Krzyżanowski, Emanuel Kania, Karol Mikuli, Józef Lubowski, and Aleksander Zarzycki.

However, Chopin's mazurkas were not always met with proper understanding.  Some people believed they were excessively sentimental and had nothing in common with the joyful, brisk peasant mazur or with the ballroom mazurka.  Ludwik Nabielak uttered these memorable words: "Since melancholy overwhelmed the mazurka, it has been a melancholy mazurka!  It's like a funeral in the midst of a wedding party.  We pity the mazur.  Thanks to Chopin, it has been crucified all over the globe."[15]

Chopin's mazurkas were also transcribed for solo voice and piano.  Władysław Wiślicki wrote: "Chopin's piano mazurkas, the wonderfully poetic, bucolic images reminding us of folk tunes in a fine musical form, provide a vast area for various transcriptions whose appropriateness varies."[16] Six melodies by Fr. Chopin transcribed for solo voice to the lyrics by Jules Ruelle, translated into Polish by Jan Chęciński[17], became very popular.  Also worth mentioning is Pauline Viardot's arrangement of twelve mazurkas by Chopin as songs, with lyrics by Louis Pomey.  They required skilful singing and a wide vocal range from the performer.  Chopin's mazurkas were even transcribed for a brass band.  The author of some such transcriptions was F. Gołębiowski, director and chief conductor of the Second Engineer Sapper Brigade's Brass Band.[18]

Chopin's most frequently transcribed Mazurkas included the B flat major op.7 no.1, the A minor op.7 no.2, the G minor op.24 no.1, the D major op.33 no.3, and the F sharp minor op.6 no.1.  The mazurka phenomenon resulted in the second wave of mazurka mania in the latter half of the 19th century.  Mazurkas for the ballroom and pieces of a purely artistic nature were composed.  Every Polish composer tried their hand at writing mazurkas.  However, they failed to equal Chopin  in terms of skill and originality, although some compositions deserve to be mentioned, such as Eugeniusz Pankiewicz's for their original harmonic ideas, Władysław Żeleński's for their polyphonic character and Zygmunt Noskowski's for having been based on authentic folk tunes from Kolberg's collection[19].  Chopin's mazurkas also provided inspiration for poets.  Their reception in this area includes Kornel Ujejski's "Poemata Szopena" and Józef Sęp's poems, each inspired by a different Chopin composition.

Also polonaises did not escape transcription.  Józef Sikorski called them "a book full of psychological transformations of the nation's spirit."[20]  This genre played a symbolic role, that of a national dance.  In Poland polonaises were immensely popular, for instance those written by Michał Kleofas Ogiński, and every above-average musician thought it both a duty and a pleasure to compose polonaises.  Chopin's compositions were mainly orchestrated, the most popular being the A major op.40 and the A flat major op.53, also the Andante Spianato and the Polonaise in E flat major op.22.

Chopin's polonaises inspired continuous generations of Polish composers.  The generation of composers living after Chopin - Antoni Stolpe, Ignacy Krzyżanowski, Władysław Żeleński, Zygmunt Noskowski - wrote polonaises which were the closest to Chopin's, and Noskowski's Elegiac Polonaise still enjoys popularity.  As regards pieces for instruments other than the piano, the best are the polonaises for violin by Henryk Wieniawski and those compositions included in Stanisław Moniuszko's operas Halka, The Haunted Manor and The Countess[21].

Every Chopin etude was transcribed at least once; the most popular were those in F minor op.25 no.2, C sharp minor op.25 no.7, E major op.10 no.3, C major op.10 no.1 and also E flat minor op.10 no.6.  All but one of the preludes (the exception was the Prelude in D major op.28 no.5) were transcribed in a variety of ways. There were many transcriptions and arrangements of nocturnes, for example those in E flat major op.9 no.2 and B major op.32 no.1, waltzes in D flat major op.64 no.1, A minor op.34 no.2, and E flat major op.18 and songs, especially A Maiden's Wish, The Little Ring, and My Sweetheart[22] .  

The ballades, scherzos, impromptus, fantasias and sonatas aroused less interest.  It was only the Funeral March from the Sonata in B flat minor, which was regarded as a self-contained piece, that became very popular in those days.  About 400 hundred transcriptions were made of this, according to Tomaszewski, and Henry Rèber's instrumental arrangement of this composition was first played at Chopin's funeral on 30 October 1849.  Also Jan Quattrini's transcription for symphony orchestra and vocal voices was popular in Poland.

 However, the most frequently published were the transcriptions of Chopin's works for four hands.  They appeared shortly after the originals, which was common practice, especially among German publishers. Each such transcription was regarded as a complement to the original work.[23]

As regards other instruments, arrangements for violin, flute, or cello and piano were popular.  According to Tomaszewski, those pieces transcribed for violin had "a mobile, singing or dancing-type of cantilena" and were mostly nocturnes, waltzes and mazurkas, for example Karol Lipiński's transcription of the Nocturne in E flat major op.9 no.2.  Cellists preferred pieces with a low-register melody of the espressivo type.  Hence the Etude in C sharp minor op.25 no.7[24] and the Etude in E major op.10 no.3 were especially popular.

Russian composers of the second half of the 19th century were primarily known for adapting Chopin's works for orchestra. One example is Alexander Glazunov's orchestral suite Chopiniana, providing music for the ballet Les Sylphides.  For this suite, Glazunov used the Polonaise in A major op. 40, the Nocturne F major op.15, the Mazurka in C sharp minor op.50, the Waltz in C sharp minor op. 64 and the Tarantella op.43.  In the 19th century Chopin's music was even transcribed for accordion, mandolin, balalaika and bayan[25].  Several thousand such transcriptions were made, vastly outnumbering Chopin's originals.

In the mid-19th century no advanced methods of analysing Chopin's work had been developed.  Poles intuitively sensed the genius and individual quality of his compositions, whose unquestionable value was their intimate national character.  But they also appreciated the universal character of Chopin's music, a quality that was both timeless and trans-national. 

The impact of Chopin's music extended across national boundaries.  The music caused ripples across Europe, especially that which emanated from Paris, where the composer lived and wrote his compositions after 1830.  It should be noted that among Chopin's peers were Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt and Friedrich Kalkbrenner.  The harmony and texture of Chopin's music fascinated Schumann, especially in the early 1830s when the German composer wrote his Nocturne in G minor op.15, which was later completed by Joachim Draheim and titled Variations on a Theme of Chopin, and a miniature piece Chopin in Carnival op.9.  Schumann also expressed his enthusiasm in his reviews of Chopin's works published in various periodicals.  Kalkbrenner showed his appreciation by dedicating to Chopin his Variations Brillantes op.120 on a theme from the Mazurka in B flat major op.7 no.1.

There is no doubt that Chopin's music was reflected in Liszt's works.  Liszt believed the Polish composer to be the precursor of an innovative approach to harmony, ornamentation and tempo rubato.  He thought highly of Chopin's composing talent (he went into raptures over the Etudes op.10, which Chopin dedicated to him) and of Chopin's style of playing, which was full of nuances and which delighted the musical elite and music lover alike.  Also, Liszt took from Chopin the ability to control the form, which reined in his enthusiasm for virtuosity.  The impact of Chopin's music on Liszt's compositions can be heard, among others, in Six chants polonais, which were the transcriptions of six songs by Chopin, in Consolation in D flat major no.3 (Chopin's Nocturne op.27 no.2), in 3 Apparitions and in Etude no.2 La leggierezza from Trois ètudes de koncert in Funerailles (1849), where in the middle section Liszt used the figurations from the middle part of Chopin's Polonaise in A flat major op.53.[26]

 Chopin's Etudes inspired many composers, including Liszt, whose Transcendental Studies, composed in 1851-1852, were his highest achievement in terms of  technique.  In 1852 Liszt paid a tribute to Chopin by writing a monograph on the Polish composer.  It was a poetic rather than a factual essay, written by an artist about another artist, in which Liszt stressed the national element of Chopin's compositions, his personality, poetic playing and the feminine side of his emotional character.  However, the Hungarian composer failed to fully grasp Chopin's accomplishments in form, especially as regards the Polish composer's last works. 

George Sand, too, was influenced by Chopin's music.  She wrote new lyrics based on the song A Maiden's Wish and her La chanson de phebé was published in the 1870s.

The "national schools" of the late 19th and early 20th centuries recognised Chopin's inspirational role.  A group of Russian composers calling themselves The Mighty Handful (also known as The Five) consciously referred to Chopin, especially Nicolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Mily Balakirev. Balakirev's Orchestral Suite included his transcriptions of Chopin's Etude in E flat minor, the Mazurka in B major op.41, the Nocturne in G minor op.15 and the Scherzo in C sharp minor.  It should be noted that Balakirev's admiration for Chopin was so great that the Russian composer decided to visit the place where the Polish genius was born.  In 1891 he went on a pilgrimage from St Petersburg to Żelazowa Wola.  The pilgrimage resulted in the unveiling of a Chopin statue at Żelazowa Wola (14 October 1894), the first in Poland, and encouraged several initiatives which led to the establishment of a place of remembrance in the Żelazowa Wola cottage.

The following generations of Russian composers also drew on Chopin's music.  Among them was Anatoly Lyadov, dubbed "a Russian Chopin", Sergei Rachmaninov and Alexander Scriabin. Lyadov wrote music in the same genres as Chopin and borrowed the piano texture and characteristic lyricism from the Polish composer, for example Lyadov's Prelude in E minor op.33 no.1 took on the aura of the texture of Chopin's Nocturne in E minor WN 23[27], while the Barcarolle in F sharp major op.44 mainly imitated the genre features that Chopin had used in his Barcarolle in F sharp major op.60.  Rachmaninov expanded the texture of the preludes and the etudes, thus creating a monumental style for stage performances. His Prelude in C sharp minor op.23 had echoes of the choral chords of Chopin's Prelude in C minor op.28 no.20.  He also composed Variations on a Theme of Chopin for piano op.22, which were actually on a theme from Chopin's Prelude in C minor op.28.  Scriabin drew on Chopin's harmonic structuralism, for example, his Etude in C sharp minor op.2 no.1 contained traits of the Polish composer's Etude in C sharp minor op.25 no.7.

The Bohemian composers who drew inspiration from Chopin in writing their music included Bedřich Smetana, Antoni Dvořak and Leoš Janaček.  In Norway Edward Grieg, nicknamed "the Chopin of the North", directly adopted the Polish composer's concept of national music being regarded as ‘high art', and in 1903 Grieg wrote Etude - homage á Chopin in honour of this composer.  Chopin influences were also heard in Spanish music, for instance in the compositions by Isaac Albeniz, Manuel de Falla and Enrique Granados.  In France, Gabriel Fauré, César Franc and his pupil Henri Duparc were the composers who most often modelled their music on Chopin's works.

Chopin's influence on modernist music was clearly evident in the works of Claude Debussy (a phrase from the Nocturne in D flat major is heard in Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune), Maurice Ravel, Max Reger and Gustav Mahler. The latter consciously used short fragments, which he borrowed directly from Chopin's compositions.  For instance, he included fragments of the Berceuse in D flat major op. 57 in his song Ich atme einen linden Duft from 1904. The other composers who were influenced by Chopin were Arthur Honegger (his 1947 Souvenir de Chopin echoed the Waltz in A minor op.34 no.2), Igor Stravinsky (The Soldier's Tale of 1918 contains a reference, in the form of a parody, to Chopin's Waltz in F major op.34 no.3), Francis Poulenc (his Nocturne no.4 from the suite Huit Nocturnes alludes to the Prelude in A major op.28 no.7), Bohuslav Martinu (Mazurka - Nocturne memorial á Chopin of 1949), Jacques Ibert (Etude - Caprice pour un tombeau de Chopin for cello from 1949) and Darius Milhaud.  George Crumb put together three fragments from Chopin's Fantaisie-Impromptu in C sharp minor WN 46, making a so-called collage, in his Dream Images: Love Death Music from the cycle Makrokosmos I for amplified piano (1972).

In Poland in the late 19th and early 20th centuries Chopin "appeared" in the music of Władysław Żeleński and Zygmunt Noskowski.  Both admired Chopin and both failed to understand his works properly. The former, a traditionalist, criticised Chopin for shortcomings in his design of large forms and for the absence of a compositional plan and a logical order in his modulations.[28]  Noskowski, a faithful supporter of the programme music trend, attempted to show Chopin's entire work as having been influenced by Polish landscape and nature.  This attitude followed the trend of the shallow appreciation of Chopin's music, which was characterised by stylised illustration.  Chopin was accepted without reservation in nearly the whole of Europe, and the innovative character of his texture and expression inspired many creative ideas.  It was only the generation of Polish musicians of the first half of the 20th century (Karol Szymanowski, Aleksander Tansman, Roman Maciejewski, Antoni Szałowski, and Bolesław Woytowicz) who ignored tradition and introduced new methods, new techniques and a new artistic style, all of which made the renewal  of Polish music possible.  Szymanowski stressed the timeless value of Chopin's compositions. To him, the purely formal features constituted that value, and he also thought highly of the innovatory quality and nationalistic dimension of Chopin's music.  He referred directly to Chopin's work in his Mazurkas, especially in the 20-piece cycle op.50, which he wrote in the years 1924-1926 and modelled on Chopin's way of stylising the mazurka, albeit combining it with a modern composer's new ideas.  Aleksander Tansman wrote Mazurka à la Chopin in 1923 and many years later, in 1969, he dedicated his Hommage à Chopin to the great Polish composer.  Szymanowski's successors, Roman Maciejewski, Zygmunt Mycielski, Antoni Szałowski, and Wawrzyniec Żuławski, also tried their hand at writing mazurkas.

After a period of giving up Chopin for pursuits in the field of serialism, sonorism and aleatorism, composers returned to the tradition they had abandoned.  The followers of the new trend, referred to as the new lyricism or new romanticism, were Henryk Górecki, who in the third movement of his Symphony No.3 of 1977 used chords from the Mazurka in A minor op.17 no.4, and also Eugeniusz Knapik and Aleksander Lasoń who were known as the Stalowa Wola generation of composers[29].  Witold Lutosławski admitted that Chopin had always been an inspiration for him and "a source stimulating his imagination."[30]  Florian Dąbrowski used fragments of Chopin's F-minor Concerto in his cantata Odejście Fryderyka (1949), while Bronisław Przybylski included fragments of the Mazurka in C sharp minor op. 6 no.2 in a composition he called Á Varsovie (1983).

Chopin's music was present, in many different ways and forms, in the work of composers of his and successive generations.  M. Tomaszewski stated, "Admiration or fascination, and rarely reservation or criticism, was usually the cause of reactions to Chopin's music and its influence.  Some reactions were superficial and sentimental, while others were more profound, resulting from a spiritual closeness to Chopin.  There were both conscious and unconscious reactions; some referred to general principles, others to the composer's ideas and attitudes, and others simply amounted to the use of some specific motifs, phrases or idioms.  Sometimes a reaction was of a creative kind, aiming at continuity and development, but often it would result in mere imitation."[31]

One thing is certain - Chopin's music is exceptional.  Perceived as a thoroughly romantic composer who wrote musical masterpieces and filled them with a unique national colour, Chopin has become a timeless, pan-cultural  phenomenon, whose music has become the property of the whole world.


Mariola Wojtkiewicz
English translation: Jerzy Ossowski


[1] Irena Poniatowska, Historyczne przemiany recepcji Chopina.  Materials from the conference, Chopin. In Search of a Common Language, NIFC, Warszawa 2001, pp. 37-52.

[2] Han-Heinrich Eggebrech, Zur Geschichte der Beethoven Rezeption, Mainz 1972 and the entry Rezeption in Brockhaus-Rieman Musik-Lexikon, Wiesbaden, Mainz, 1979, vol.2.

[3] Zofia Lissa, Świadomość historyczna w muzyce i jej rola we współczesnej kulturze muzycznej, in Nowe szkice z estetyki muzycznej, Kraków 1975 and Problem recepcji Chopina in Z badań nad Chopinem, Warszawa 1973.

[4] Jim Samson, Chopin Reception Theory, History, Analysis in "Musica Jagiellonica" I, 1995, pp. 91-112.

[5] Mieczysław Tomaszewski, Utwór muzyczny w perspektywie intertekstualnej,  in O muzyce polskiej w perspektywie intertekstualnej Kraków 2005, p. 17 and footnote no. 16.

[6] Mieczysław Tomaszewski, Chopin. Człowiek, dzieło, rezonans. Poznań 1998, p. 790.

[7] No. 103 of 18 March 1830.

[8] Barbara Literska: Dziewiętnastowieczne transkrypcje utworów Fryderyka Chopina, Kraków 2004, p. 29, after Katalog dzieł Fryderyka Chopina, J.M. Chomiński and T.D. Turło.

[9] Marceli Antoni Szulc: Fryderyk Chopin i utwory muzyczne, PWM 1986, p. 64.

[10] Jan Kleczyński: Fryderyk Chopin, a paper delivered at the Warsaw Music Society on the 64th anniversary of Chopin's birth. "Bluszcz", 1873 no.10, p.73.

[11] Mazurka is a stylised Polish folk dance called mazur. The two terms were often interchangeable.

[12] Irena Poniatowska Mazurek w kręgu Chopina - a paper delivered during the Day with the Mazur, Warszawa, 2006

[13] M. Tomaszewski: Chopin (...), op. Cit., p.359.

[14] W. Wiślicki: O literaturze muzycznej, "Kłosy", 1868, no.133, p.30.

[15] Quoted after Irena Poniatowska, Geniusz Chopina i mazurki in Dziedzictwo kulturowe Mazowsza, vol. II, Warszawa 2002, pp. 7-22.

[16] W. Wiślicki: O literaturze muzycznej, "Kłosy", 1868, no.76, pp.283-284.

[17] "Kłosy" 1868, no. 133, pp.28-30. Published by Gebethner & Wolff.

[18] "Ruch Muzyczny", 1862, no. 52, p. 819.

[19] Oskar Kolberg - Polish folklorist and composer (1814-1890).

[20] Józef Sikorski: Jan Stefani przez Maurycy Karasowski, „Ruch Muzyczny", 1859, no.28, p.219.

[21] Polish: Halka, Straszny Dwór, Hrabina.

[22] Polish: Życzenie, Pierścień, Moja pieszczotka.

[23] J.M. Chomiński, T.D. Turło: Katalog dzieł Fryderyka Chopina, Kraków 1990, p.53.

[24] Tomaszewski Mieczysław: Obecność muzyki Chopina w twórczości rówieśników i następców in Muzyka na nowo odczytana. Studia i interpretacje, Music Academy, Kraków 1996, p.124.

[25] The bayan, a Russian folk music instrument, is a chromatic accordion.  Known as a ‘button accordion', the bayan has a different tone colour,  as compared with the western accordion, and a fuller sound.

[26] Irena Poniatowska: Chopin-Liszt. Uwagi o środkach wirtuozowskich i wzajemnych relacjach obu artystów, op.cit., pp.117-144.

[27] The initials WN stand for (Polish) National Edition.

[28] M. Tomaszewski: Chopin w oczach naśladowców, następców i kontynuatorów in Kompozytorzy polscy o Chopinie, p.31, Kraków, 1959.

[29] Eugeniusz Knapik, Aleksander Lasoń and Andrzej Krzanowski, also known as the "51 generation" (they all were born in 1951), were the Silesian avant garde composers of the 1970s.  In the period 1975-1980 eleven first performances of their compositions were held in Stalowa Wola near Cracow.

[30] M. Tomaszewski: Chopin (...), op. cit. Pp. 791-792.

[31] M. Tomaszewski: Obecność muzyki Chopina w twórczości rówieśników i następców, op. Cit., p. 108.




1. Chechlińska Zofia, Chopin w kontekście polskiej kultury muzycznej XIX, in „Rocznik Chopinowski" no. 20, 1992.

2. Chechlińska Zofia, Chopin Reception ii Nineteenth-Century Poland, in The Cambridge Companion to Chopin, ed. J. Samson, Cambridge University Press, 1992.

3. Chomiński Józef, Szymanowski a Chopin, „Rocznik Chopinowski" no. 7, 1969.

4. Chomiński J.M., Turło T.D., Katalog dzieł Fryderyk Chopina, Kraków 1990 (list of transcriptions).

5. Chopin1849/1999. Aspekte der Rezeptions- und Interpretationsgeschichte, ed. Andreas Ballstaedt, Schlingen, 2003.

6. Czernek Ewa, Chopin i Lipiński, w: Chopin w kręgu przyjaciół IV, ed. I. Poniatowskiej, Warszawa 1998.

7. Deryng Xavier, La réception de Chopin dans les arts plastiques, les interprétations de Boleslas Biegas, in Sur les traces de Frédéric Chopin, collected by D. Pistone, Paris 1984.

8. Eggebrecht Hans-Heinrich, Zur Geschichte der Beethoven Rezeption, Mainz 1972.

9. Eggebrecht Hans-Heinrich, Rezeption in Brockhaus - Riemann Musik - Lexikon, Wiesbaden - Mainz,1979, vol.2.

10. Juszyńska Krystyna, Rogowski Piotr, Rubato w Balladzie g-moll op. 23 F. Chopina w różnych interpretacjach pianistycznych, in Chopin w kręgu przyjaciół IV, ed. I. Poniatowskiej, Warszawa 1998.

11. Lissa Zofia, Problem recepcji Chopina in Z badań nad Chopinem, Warszawa 1973.

12. Lissa Zofia, Świadomość historyczna w muzyce i jej rola we współczesnej kulturze muzycznej, w: Nowe szkice z estetyki muzycznej, Kraków 1975.

13. Poniatowska Irena, Historyczne przemiany recepcji Chopina (conference materials). Chopin - w poszukiwaniu wspólnego języka, The Fryderyk Chopin Institute, Warszawa 2001.

14. Poniatowska Irena, Chopin - Liszt. Uwagi o środkach wirtuozowskich i wzajemnych relacjach obu artystów, in Historia i interpretacja muzyki, z badań nad muzyka od VII do XIX w., Musica Jagiellonica 1995.

15. Poniatowska Irena, W kręgu recepcji i rezonansu muzyki - szkice chopinowskie, The Fryderyk Chopin Institute 2008: Recepcja muzyki jako problem estetyczny i teoretyczny, Ciągłość a periodyzacja w historii muzyki (współczesna recepcja pojęć), „Six chants polonais" Franciszka Liszta, Mazurki Chopina w transkrypcjach Pauliny Viardot, Metaforyczna analiza twórczości Chopina w książce Liszta, O wieloznacznych interpretacjach Preludiów op. 28 Chopina,

Interpretacja idei minimalizmu w Preludiach Chopina w świetle recepcji teorii minimal music, Recepcja książki „F. Chopin" Franciszka Liszta w Polsce, Do problemu metodyki gry Etiud op.10 Fryderyka Chopina, Żyć, czuć, działać in tempo rubato. O grze i muzyce fortepianowej Ignacego Jana Paderewskiego.

16. Poniatowska Irena, Twórczość Chopina w świetle pierwszych monografii. Przyczynek do badań nad recepcją XIX wieku, „Rocznik Chopinowski", no. 20, Warszawa 1988.

17. Poniatowska Irena, Die Rezeption der Musik als Interdisziplinäres Problem - an einigen Beispielen der Chopin Rezeption, in Interdisciplinary Studies in Musicology II, red. M. Jabłoński, J. Stęszewski, Poznań 1995.

18. Tomaszewski Mieczysław, Chopin w oczach naśladowców, następców i kontynuatorów, in Kompozytorzy polscy o Chopinie, Kraków 1959.

19. Tomaszewski Mieczysław, Obecność muzyki Chopina w twórczości rówieśników i następców, in Muzyka Chopina na nowo odczytana. Studia i interpretacje, Music Academy, Kraków 1996.

20. Tomaszewski Mieczysław, Chopin. Człowiek, dzieło, rezonans. Poznań 1998.

21. Tomaszewski Mieczysław, Frederic Chopin und seine Zeit. Laaber 1999.

22. Samson Jim, Chopin Reception Theory, History, Analysis in Musica Jagiellonica, 1995 and in Chopin Studies II, Cambridge, New York 1994.

23. Stróżewski Władysław, Chopin and Norwid, in Chopin Studies III, Warszawa 1990.





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